These visas are characterized by the fact that they are directly related to work.
H-1B allows a person to engage in specialty occupations, or are fashion models of distinguished merit an ability, or are person providing service related to the Department of Defense, to come to the United States to engage in work. In order to qualify for H-1B, the U. S employer must obtain a certification from DOL. That application contains certain attestations a violation of which can result in fines, and sanctions to the employer. H-1B carries an annual quota of 65,000. However, H-1Bs who are sponsored by educational institutions are neither subject to the numerical cap, nor are required to pay the normal processing fee. The H-1B may be admitted for a period of three years and extension generally cannot go beyond a total of six years, except under certain circumstances..
This visa is for professional nurses working in health care professions shortage areas. It has been available to individuals coming to the Unites States to work temporary as registered nurse. A hospital is required to submit an attestation that the hospital has taken significant steps to recruit and retain U.S nurses. It is limited to 500 visas per year and cannot be extended beyond 3 years.
H-2A and H-2B
Persons coming to perform agricultural nature labor or services must work in a job that is temporary or seasonal and are admitted as H-2A visa holders; non agricultural are admitted as H-2B.
The H-3 classification for individuals who are receiving instructional or training in any field of endeavor, such as agriculture, commerce, communications, finance, government, transportation or the professions as well as training in a purely industrial establishment with the exception of graduate medical training or education that falls within the J visa. Often H-3 visa holders are management trainees from a large multinational company, medical externs, and nurses who need a brief period of training that is unavailable in the home country.
The H-3 visa is only available where the training is not available in the home country the foreign national will not be placed in a position where U.S workers are regularly employed and the training will help a foreign national pursue a career outside the United States.
The I visa category is available to individuals who are representatives of foreign media. Individuals who are working for foreign press, radio, film, or other information media can enter under this category as long as they are employed with foreign media. Those working in the information, documentary or educational programming fields are eligible to enter under this category.
The L visa is for intra-company transferees. The visa facilitates the admission of multinational corporate executives and managers, or persons with specialized knowledge. The person must be employed by the parent, branch, or Subsidiary Corporation of the company continuously for one year out of the prior three years.
The O-1 visa applies to two categories of persons. The O-1A is for a person who through national or international acclaim has demonstrated extraordinary abilities in sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics. The O-1B is for people in the motion picture or T.V production business. While there is no foreign residency requirement but the person must have intent to remain temporarily.
This visa is for athletes and entertainers. The P-1A is for the athletes who are internationally recognized, or who are part of a group that has achieved this recognition. The P-1B is for a person who performs with, or in an integral pat of an entertainment group that has been internationally recognized for sustained period as being outstanding entertainers. The performer seeking admission in the category must have had as substantial relation with the group for at least one year.
Ministers, people working in a professional capacity for religious organizations, or others working for such organization can enter as R religious workers. Examples of such occupations include liturgical workers, cantors, religious broadcasters etc. The spouse and children are given R-2 status.
The TN visa is for nationals of Canada or Mexico admitted under NAFTA and who seek temporary entry as a business person to engage in business activities at a professional level. There is a list of professions for which persons may be admitted to the United States. The TN applicant would have to show that he or she will remain for temporary period and does not equate to permanent residence.
These are visas for officials, employees and dependents of an international organization that are quasi government Examples are United Nations (UN), World Bank etc. Family members are given G-2 visas.